Various Facts About Breast Cancer Information

Breast cancer is a very deadly disease. There are millions of people who are actually suffering from this type of cancer. This is the reason why the victims of this particular cancer are growing nowadays among the people of the world. This particular disease is seen predominantly in the women but even men do suffer from this disorder.

The recent statistics have shown an increase in this particular disorder among the people of the world’s population. This is the reason why you need to completely know about how dangerous this particular disease is, so that you can try to prevent it up to a particular extent.

The most common symptom of breast cancer is the formation of a lump in the area of the breast. However you don’t need to confuse any lump in your breast to be breast cancer. It order to confirm that a person is suffering from this kind of disorder, a medical examination is quite important.

Only the doctor has to diagnose you and tell whether you’re suffering from breast cancer. You don’t need to worry when you see any other common symptoms of breast cancer in you. But you need to be very careful with this particular kind of disorder because if not treated on time, there are chances of losing your life.

So if you actually want to know more about the symptoms of breast cancer, then you can browse on the Internet because there is lot of information about all kinds of illnesses on the Internet.

Having basic knowledge about such kind of disorders is always helpful because you can stay away from them. Health is very important and you can enjoy your life only when your health is perfect. This is the reason why you need to really care for it on a constant basis.

As an ordinary citizen who had breast cancer five years ago, I had my mastectomy followed by chemotherapy without hitting the headlines of CNN and without being pictured pitifully in tabloids with my bald head wrapped in a $ 1,000 Hermes scarf.

Along with the other 44,900-odd ordinary women diagnosed with breast cancer every year in the UK, I got on with my treatment and my life as well as possible. Happily, I currently am among the 33,000 or so women in the UK diagnosed around the same time as me, who haven’t died from it so far.

Is the Morning After Pill Dangerous: Is Contraceptives Safer

When things don’t go as you planned, what do you do? In this case the subject is the morning after pill. Your other contraception didn’t work or you just had sex without protection, now the responsibility of pregnancy haunts you and you don’t want to handle it that is be a mother. They have that other alternative called abstinence, but abstinence in today’s society is only looked at as an alternative by people with high religious or moral views.

The morning after pills have higher doses of the active ingredients than those that are found in birth control pills. So what? Well. Birth control pills are known to cause health issues for women that take them. So what do you think this pill with a much higher dosage has the potential to do? Logically, cause more problems. The Cancer Prevention Coalition explains that “the incidence of estrogen-dependent breast cancers, particularly among post-menopausal women, has increased by 130% from the mid 70’s in sharp contrast to only 27% in non-estrogen-dependent breast cancers.”

Another point is that they say that the current birth control pills are safer, but they are more potent than the earlier pills plus they are 40 times more potent than natural estradiol. It also increases the risk of heart disease if other factors are present such as diabetes. Yes, there are pro and con arguments. But studies conducted on women from the 70’s spans a longer time period to show long term effects.

The whole argument for or against the morning after pill boils down to health and your moral stance. The New American Magazine points out that the side effects of repeatedly using the morning after pill are massive hemorrhaging and ectopic pregnancies. That is “the fertilized egg is plant outside of the uterus.”

You should consider the health risk of taking the morning after pill as a regular type of birth control in the area of the dreaded STD’s. If you don’t dread them, maybe you don’t know what they are. We’re talking sexually transmitted disease. Some of these have the potential to reoccur and cause more serious health issues. For instance, HPV, that means human papillomavirus and there are two types low-risk and high-risk, there is no middle ground w. They can cause cancer of the cervical cancer, and cancer of the vulva, vagina, anus, and penis.

In 90% of the cases of STD’s your body’s immune system clears the infection within two years. But you could be in that other 10%. And while you have it in your system you are contagious. People with multiple sex partners are usually the people who get STD’s. The morning after pill is a choice, just like other birth control methods such as the sponge, IUD, or pill. You have to look at both your religious beliefs and your health benefits. It is hard to juggle both sometimes, but if you are going to be sexually active, you have to have a knowledge based opinion on the subject.

Detoxification – the key to our health and beauty

Detoxification is a natural method that helps eliminate toxins accumulated in the body, which may negatively impact quality of life. In the current modern world our body contains chemicals that we cannot eliminate without external help. The most common sources of these chemicals it is, among other things, food, water and air. Captured body of toxins may experience the following symptoms: fatigue, constipation, digestive disorders, weight gain, bloating, irritability, etc.

Who would not like to have an active and high quality life? Most important question is: what do / can we do about this? It is important to note that we are able to influence the evolution of three-quarters of our health. Few are aware of the important role they play in this process of detoxification or cleansing the body. Most people do nothing all their lives to free the body of accumulated toxins, parasites and residues of certain substances. Parasites are ubiquitous, anytime we can get in touch with them. Contaminated water, red meat or insufficiently cooked fish, unwashed vegetables or fruit are just some of many possible sources of infection. It is very common, also contamination from pets or sick persons. Even excessive use of antibiotics contributes to the problem, because it has negative effects on the intestinal flora, thus weakening the immune system.

One of the important roles of the intestine is to remove from the body all harmful substances, materials in fermentation or putrefaction. Early in life, the intestinal wall forms sticky deposits that harden over time and cannot be easily deleted. At first causes only small inconvenience: mild bloating, fatigue, irritability, anxiety. Later cause immunity problems, allergies, chronic inflammation and other diseases, including cancer. Younger women may experience rashes on the face, which does not respond to conventional therapy. In women with childbearing potential, colon cleaned can be a cause of infertility. Premature aging is present in all of us if we do not care for our bodies.

Tips for a healthy detox

– During the detoxification is very important to ensure an increased fluid intake, as non-carbonated mineral water, herbal teas or boiled and cooled water. It is also preferably to reduce alcohol consumption and smoking.

– Adequate nutrition also plays an important role in detoxification. Food is not merely sources of nutrients, but they have the role of cleaning. That’s why you should prefer foods high in fiber. Fibers increase their volume by absorbing water, thus ensuring a high volume of faeces which facilitates the bowel muscles. Legumes, cereals, vegetables, fruits, flax seed etc, are excellent sources of fiber.

– For a successful detox is recommended to avoid consumption of red meat, offal, fried or smoked food, sugar, milk and eggs.

– Bacteria present in healthy human body form a dynamic flora, the “beneficial” bacteria, especially those that cause fermentation of milk, plays an important role. These bacteria prevent the transformation of primary bile acids into secondary bile acids, which have a role in colorectal cancer. Also, because of their ability to produce some substances – called bacteriocins – with antibiotic properties, these bacteria inhibit the excessive growth of the bacteria of putrefaction and pathogenic (harmful). Thus, for a well functioning colon is essential regular intake of lactobacilli. These probiotics are found naturally in cabbage, cucumbers curdled, yogurt, sana, cheese. Those who do not eat enough of these foods can fill the needs of probiotics with nutritional supplements such as AC-Zymes or ACIDOPHILUS WITH PSYLLIUM manufactured and distributed by CaliVita.

– The consumption of herbal teas or extracts (tinctures) has beneficial effects on the functioning of the stomach, as well as cleans and detoxifies the liver, intestines and kidneys. Such herbs are chamomile, peppermint, nettle, dandelion, onion, bear, echinacea, burdock, birch leaves, etc. By eating parsley, garlic, rhubarb, ginger and grapes can enhance the beneficial effects obtained by cleansing diet. Beneficial in detoxification is proving to be very useful barley grass, Chlorella blue green algae and Spirulina platensis.

– Feeding the body with essential nutrients and antioxidants is important because toxic substances in the body cause depletion of essential vitamins, minerals respectively, thereby reducing the body’s resistance. A good cleanser, antioxidant and nutritional food supplement is Liquid Chlorophyll from CaliVita.

Other excellent detox products from Calivita

– Pure Yucca naturally favors the process of detoxification, stimulates digestion, and encourages nutrient absorption. It is really useful for those suffering from intestine chronic diseases and combat arthralgia.

– Detox Patch with herbal powder stimulates natural detoxification. This natural product is ideal for older people, people under stress and, of course, for people who give importance to body’s detoxification.

– Aquarion is a reverse osmosis water filter that produces enriched oxygen ionized water, free of toxins and heavy metals. Helps detoxify, oxygenize, alkalinize and hydrate the body, strengthens the immune system and helps retain nutrients from food.

A Guide To Sexual Health

Sexual health is very important to be educated on, especially if you are sexually active yourself. Out of all the different issues that are included in the topic of sexual health, sexually transmitted diseases are definitely in the top ranking. STDs are more common than ever and are being spread at a faster rate than ever before.

When it comes to your sexual health you need to take certain precautions in order to guard yourself against these diseases, and one of the best steps you can take here is to make yourself informed and educated on the different diseases that are out there.

Chlamydia

Chlamydia is one of the most commonly contracted sexually transmitted diseases in the world and definitely one of the most important sexually transmitted diseases to discuss in the topic of sexual health.

Chlamydia is passed through sexual contact with an infected person, and an infected mother may also pass the disease onto her baby during childbirth.

Gonorrhea

Gonorrhea is another of the most popular sexually transmitted diseases, and also one that is critical to discuss when speaking about sexual health. In women gonorrhea can spread to the ovaries and fallopian tubes, and in men it can cause urethritis and penile discharge. It can also be spread from the penis to the throat during oral sex, although this is not particularly common.

Herpes

Herpes is a sexually transmitted disease that that results in painful blister-like sores that appear on the penis and vagina and it is spread by direct contact. Herpes is highly contagious if there are open sores present and it can spread even before sores form and after they heal.

Genital Warts

Another very common sexually transmitted disease, genital warts can appear on the penis, vagina, vulva, cervix, and in an around the anus and throat. There are often no symptoms at first and then a few months after contact with an infected person bumps may appear on the areas mentioned.

One of the most dangerous aspects to genital warts is that women who have developed the disease are at much higher risk of cervical cancer. In terms of treatment, warts may be treated with solution, gel, ointment, or frozen or burned off with laser or electric needle.

If you ever think you may have contracted a sexually transmitted disease you should speak to your doctor as soon as possible in order to make a proper diagnosis and then find the right method of treatment if necessary.

Rabbit monoclonal antibody: potential request in cancer

In cancer, numerous tumor associated antigens (TAAs) have been utilized as disease markers and targets for antibody therapeutics, for example p53, HER-2, EGFR, among others. Monoclonal antibodies have been the most powerful tools to dissect the expression and to block the functions of tumor associated antigens. Several monoclonal antibody products have been developed for cancer diagnosis and treatment. The market for therapeutic monoclonal antibodies is forecasted to reach ∼$ 94 billion by 2017 and nearly $ 125 billion by 2020. The antibody market has yet reached its full potential. This is because relative few targets are being exploited. Up to this date, there has been little systematic effort to discover novel tumor associated antigens and develop therapeutic antibody leads through large scale generation of anti-tumor monoclonal antibodies.

Recently, BostonMolecules has developed rabbit B cell derived monoclonal antibody (RbcMAbs) technology which provides a novel type of monoclonal antibody with higher affinity, higher sensitivity and specificity. In addition, a single immunized rabbit can generate a large panel of high affinity antibodies that recognize many different epitopes, compared to traditional mouse monoclonal technology. BostonMolecules has also developed a technology platform to subtractive-immunize rabbits with disease tissues (including tumor tissue) and subsequently generate large panel of disease specific RbcMAbs. In addition, the company recently succeeded to make the first humanized RbcMAbs, which paved the way to therapeutic development.

The disease specific RbcMAbs platform allows to generate a large anti-tumor RbcMAbs bank and subsequently screen for functional therapeutic antibodies. It consists of 5 stages: (1) Subtractive-immunization of rabbits with tumor tissues; (2) Generation of a large RbcMAbs bank; (3) High throughput screening of RbcMAbs for therapeutic leads using cell-based assays; (4) Humanization of RbcMAbs leads, and (5) animal models and preclinical characterization. It will be the first systematic effort to screen therapeutic antibodies using the superior rabbit antibody repertoire. Through this platform, scientistscan discover novel cancer targets, especially membrane-bound TAAs, discover useful RbcMAbs for future diagnostic development and develop valuable therapeutic antibodies ready for clinical trials.

Tumor-associated antigens
The rationale for the use of antibody-based agents for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer is based the fact that cancerous cells present antigenic moieties that are not detectable on cells in normal tissues. Only a handful of antigens are truly tumor-specific, such as clone-specific idiotypic (Id) immunoglobulins. Most proteins are not strictly tumor-specific; rather, they have restricted distribution on normal tissues. Typically, so-called “tumor antigens” are present and accessible only in small amounts outside the target tumor tissue. These antigens are called tumor-associated antigens (TAAs).

Traditionally, TAAs have been grouped into two categories: 1) TAAs defined by T cells, and 2) TAAs defined by antibodies. MAGE-1 was discovered as the first human TAA by a gene-cloning method for the identification of antigens by autologous human cytolytic T cells (van der Bruggen et al., 1991). Most T cell-defined human TAAs were first found in melanomas, including the MAGE, BAGE, GAGE and RAGE group of antigens. The method of identifying this type of TAAs include: 1) biochemical characterization of peptides eluted from the MHC I molecules on tumor cells (Cox et al., 1994), and 2) the in vitro evaluation of T cell-stimulating activity of peptide antigens that are encoded by genes overexpressed or mutated in the tumor under investigation (Jung S, 1991).

Antibody-defined TAAs have traditionally been divided into oncofetal antigens, e.g. carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), breast cancer mucin antigen (MUC1), alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) (Baldus and Hanisch, 2000; Elgamal et al., 2000; Hammarstrom, 1999); oncogene products, e.g., nonmutated HER-2/neu (Ross and Fletcher, 1999) and p53 (Kaelin, 1999) gene products; tissue-lineage antigens (also called tissue-specific antigens) which continue to be expressed on cancer cells (Ghose and Blair, 1987), e.g. prostate-specific antigen (PSA), tyrosinase, and gp100.

The recent use of the SEREX approach (serological identification of antigens by recombinant expression cloning) has revealed that human tumors express multiple antigens that can elicit an antibody response in the autologous host (Pfreundschuh et al., 1978; Sahin et al., 1997). Therefore, a high throughput immunosubtraction method to systematically screen for tumor reacting rMAbs, will become a valuable approach for discovering novel TAAs.

Subtractive immunization

MAbs are a powerful tool for discovering differentially expressed proteins such as TAAs. A common approach for developing MAbs is to immunize mouse with tumor cells, cell lysates and other complex antigens. A major problem with this method is that MAbs are produced predominantly to the dominant antigens. However, many TAAs are likely less abundant and thus can not be discovered by direct immunization with tumor cells.

Subtractive immunization was developed in the mouse system to increase the chances of producing antibodies to low abundant but functionally relevant antigens. One way of achieving this goal is through the use of the immunosuppressive agent cyclophosphamide coupled to immunizations with two distinct cell variants as sequential immunogens (Brooks et al., 1993; Hanski et al., 1991; King and Morrow, 1988; Sensenbrenner et al., 1979; Williams et al., 1992).

Cyclophosphamide selectively kills activated B cells that have been stimulated to proliferate (Many and Schwartz, 1970). It was used to partially suppress the immune system in mice to decrease the reactivity to common cell surface antigens present on a non-metastatic cell variant that was used as the initial immunogen (Brooks et al., 1993). Cyclophosphamide has also been used in suppressive immunization procedures to make MAbs against antigens on closely related neuronal cells (Matthew and Sandrock, 1987) and to specific antigens on tumor cells (Shestowsky et al., 1990). Using cycles of cyclophosphamide treatment, mouse MAbs were generated against cryptic epitopes in denatured and proteolyzed collagens (Xu et al., 2000). This compound has been shown to induce stronger immune tolerance than a neonatal tolerization method (Williams et al., 1992)

Other methods have been invoked in attempts to suppress the immune response for dominant epitopes. Passive immunization and successive antigen depletion, using E. coli cytoplasmic proteins as antigenic mixture were tested in rabbits, and shown to be partially effective (Thalhamer and Freund, 1984; Thalhamer and Freund, 1985). Epitope-masking was attempted for human cell-surface antigens to make mouse MAbs (Su et al., 1996). Rabbit antiserum from tester cells that are preabsorbed by driver cells was used as a probe to clone adipocyte-specific proteins (Scherer et al., 1998). None of these approaches have been tested using mammalian cells and lysates for subtractive immunization of rabbits.

Rabbit monoclonal antibody

Most of antibodies approved for clinical area are mouse origin. However, the mouse system is limited by a small spleen and the mice used are usually inbred, thereforeproviding a less diversity of immune responses. In contrast, the rabbit has a robust immune system and bigger spleen to generate antibodies with high affinity and specificity.Traditionally, it has been difficult to raise monoclonal antibodies in the rabbit through immortalized B lymphocytes by fusing with myeloma cells. Recombinant antibody approaches were reported that rabbit monoclonal antibody genes were isolated from single cell PCR or phage display (Babcook, Leslie et al. 1996; Rader, Ritter et al. 2000). However, its general application is limited by the difficulty of single cell selection and PCR, or by technical demanding protocols of phage display. Current advance in Rabbit B-cell Cloning MAbs technology (RbcMAbs) provide a robust platform to generate rabbit MAbs through combination of Single B-cells proliferating technology with recombinant antibody cloning technology.

The availability of rabbit monoclonal antibodies is highly desirable. Comparing withMAbs with mouse origin in laboratory use, RbcMAbs are demonstrating their potential for clinical applications by offering many advantages over mouse MAbs. Compared with antibodies from other sources, RbcMAbs has at least following advantages: higher binding affinity,wider repertoire, simpler structure, robust reproduction and easy to be humanized.

First, antisera from rabbits are generally of higher affinity than the equivalents in mice. Second, rabbit monoclonal antibodies are expected to recognize many antigens that are not immunogenic in mice, including mouse proteins (Krause 1970; Bystryn, Jacobsen et al. 1982; Norrby, Mufson et al. 1987; Weller, Meek et al. 1987; Raybould and Takahashi 1988). For example, Bystryn et al (Bystryn, Jacobsen et al. 1982) compared rabbit and mouse antibodies directed against human melanoma cells and showed that they recognize different epitopes. Our own data also indicated that rabbit recognize more epitopes of digested human fibronectin than mouse (data not shown). Third, Because of the size of the rabbit spleen, more antigen specific B cells can be selected, making MAbs generation at industrial scale a feasible task. Fourth, BIAcore analysis of randomly selected 12 rabbit MAbs showed that the affinity is within the range of 10-9 to 10-12 M, much higher than average mouse MAbs. Fifth, thousands of single B cells can be expanded and RbcMAbs generated from each immunized spleen, providing a much greater number of independent monoclonal antibodies that recognize different epitopes. The antibody containing B cell supernatant can be directly used for drug screen without need to remove HAT from the medium as traditional mouse hybridoma technology should. Thus, a panel of bioactive RbcMAbs could be easily obtained for further selection of antibody drug leads. The robustness in the generation of RbcMAbs offers a much higher success rate to get the most desirable drug leads in a relatively shorter period of time. Sixth, RbcMAbs are easy to be humanized.

A novel humanization technology termed Mutational Lineage-Guided (MLG) humanization was recently developed to humanize RabMAb much easier. MLG humanization is based on the fact that amino acid sequences of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (VH and VL) from the collection of IgG sequence are aligned to form a phylogenetic tree. Related antibodies are grouped according to their sequences similarity to each other. Conserved sequences in a lineage-related group represent residues critical to the structure and function of IgG while uncon-served residues have less even no effects on the biological activities. Since these variable positions were obtained from a group of antibodies usually from one parental B cell, they must have been effectively examined by an animal immune system. Thus, substitution of amino acids at these positions to humanize antibodies should be well tolerated without sacrificing antibody specificity and affinity. More importantly, such variations are found not only in the framework regions, but also in the CDRs. Therefore, MLG humanization can be applied to the humanization of the framework regions as well as the CDRs. Due to the large numbers of lymphocytes of rabbit spleen, enough bioactive RbcMAbs will be available to generate humanized RbcMAb by MLG humanization.

Functional antibodies

Membrane-bound proteins are an important class of proteins that include receptors, transporters, adhesion molecules, and channel proteins. Functional study of membrane-bound human proteins has significant value in understanding many human diseases. Membrane proteins represent one of the most promising classes of therapeutic targets. The genomic initiative has discovered a large number of potential membrane proteins through algorithms that recognize a stretch of hydrophobic amino acids. Such an approach to identify potential membrane proteins by sequence analysis has a limitation in accuracy and typically requires knowledge of the entire coding sequence, including the N terminus (Nielsen, Brunak et al. 1999), which is not currently available for most of the human genes.

Several experimental approaches for identifying secreted and membrane proteins have been described, but each method has its own limitation and none of the methods focused on membrane proteins only (Tashiro, Tada et al. 1993; Klein, Gu et al. 1996; Zannettino, Rayner et al. 1996; Kopczynski, Noordermeer et al. 1998; Scherer, Bickel et al. 1998; Diehn, Eisen et al. 2000). MAbs generated against membrane proteins are powerful tools for basic research and can become potential diagnostic and therapeutic leads. Several mechanisms account for the therapeutic effects of therapeutic antibodies directed to specific membrane targets: functional blocking/stimulating , antibody dependent cytotoxicity (ADCC), complement dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), activation by cross-linking receptors. In addition, conjugated antibodies exert therapeutic effects through the payload that antibodies carry, such as toxins, cytokines, chemical drugs/prodrugs or radioisotopes. Antibodies recognizing specific tumor cell surface markers are also valuable for diagnostic imaging. Examples of functional antibodies as cancer therapeutics include antibodies against EGFR and HER2, and cell surface antigens such as CD20, CD33, CD52, and PD1/PDL1. Despite the recent progress in drug target identification, a systematic effort to collect monoclonal antibodies that have functional blocking/stimulating or stimulating activities have not been initiated. The technology described here is to generate MAbs that exert physiological functions to living cells through membrane proteins. In the same process, novel membrane proteins and their functions are discovered.

Conclusions and perspectives

RbcMAb has been demonstrated to be superior reagent for many applications in lab including Western blots, immunohistochemistry and flow-cytometry. Due to its special antibody repertoire, high affinity and easiness for generation and genetic engineering, RbcMAbs are becoming an attractive source of anti-cancer therapeutics. A number of RbcMAbs will be used in targeted therapy against cancers in near future.

Penis Cancer – 5 Signs and Symptoms to Look For

One diagnosis nobody wants to hear is that they have penis cancer. Just the thought of cancer can send shivers down a grown-man’s spine. Unfortunately, many people ignore the warning signs of such an illness out of fear; they may suspect something is wrong for many months before finally going to the doctor. Sound familiar? Finding cancer — of any kind — in the earlier stages allows for the best possible outcome. Below are some of the signs of symptoms of penile cancer that men should keep an out for when completing their daily penis care routine. Taking a proactive stance at the first suspicious sign may just save a man’s life.

Is there such a thing as penis cancer?

Many men have heard of prostate cancer but are unfamiliar with penile cancer. However, it is important to be aware that penis cancer is very real, and can affect any man. Penis cancer occurs when cancerous cells form in the tissue of the penis; it generally starts in a skin cell, known as a squamous cell, and grows slowly from there. Rarely, penis cancer can occur in the sweat glands of the penis.

Penile cancer signs and symptoms

Below are some of the most common signs of penile cancer. Because the symptoms also overlap other conditions – including STD’s – it is important to consult a doctor for a diagnosis if any of these symptoms should persist.

1. Penis sores
2. Penile discharge
3. Bleeding from the penis or sores
4. Painful penis bumps or lumps
5. Persistent redness, or irritation of the penis

Risk factors for penis cancer

There are certain actions and behaviors in life that increase the risk of developing an illness or disease. Risk factors do not automatically mean a person will develop the disease – even if they have every single risk factor – but it allows a man to take stock of his behavior and consider how certain choices he is making may influence his long-term health. Risk factors for penis cancer are:

* Having contracted Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
* Being uncircumcised
* Being over age 60
* Chronic, poor personal hygiene
* Smoking or using other tobacco products
* Having numerous sexual partners
* Having phimosos – when the foreskin of the penis is unable to retract over the head of the penis
* HIV/AIDS
* Certain psoriasis treatments

Is penile cancer treatable?

Thankfully, if caught in early stages, penile cancer can be treated. Surgery is the most common method of treatment for penile cancer. Below is a brief list of the surgical options for penile cancer treatment.

* Circumcision: If the cancer is located in the foreskin, a simple circumcision may be all that is required to treat the condition.
* Wide local excision: The cancerous cells, and the tissue immediately surrounding it, are removed from the penis tissue.
* Laser surgery: A laser is used to target and remove cancerous cells.
* Microsurgery: A microscope is used during surgery so that the doctor can target and surgically remove cancerous tissue with as little healthy tissue removed as possible.
* Electrodessication and curettage: In this method, the cancer is removed by scraping the tumor with a curette while also applying and electrical current to the specific area to kill cancer cells.
* Cryosurgery: In this procedure, liquid nitrogen is used to freeze and kill cancer cells.
* Amputation: In some cases, a removal of the penis via a penectomy is required. Full, or partial removal of the penis may be warranted depending on the severity of the cancer. Lymph nodes in the groin may also be removed during surgery, to ensure the cancer is eliminated from the body.
* Radiation: High-energy rays are targeted at cancer cells to kill them; this is a non-surgical procedure.
* Chemotherapy: High doses of potent medication are given to kill cancer cells, also a non-surgical procedure.

Maintaining penis health

While the chance of a total penectomy is rare for the average, healthy man, it is easy to see why taking proper care of the penis – and seeking immediate medical attention for an out-of-the-ordinary penis lump or bump is so important. Doctors recommend a monthly self-exam of the penis, testicles, and groin area to check for both visible and invisible bumps. Men should carefully palpate the groin and scrotum to feel for bumps, which may indicate testicular or penile cancer. In many case, a sore may be just that; a sore; but it could also be an indication of something more serious. While a careful examination should be conducted monthly, daily penis care should also be instituted to keep the member healthy. Utilizing a high-quality penis vitamin cream (most health professionals recommend Man 1 Man Oil) can help protect the penis from unsightly pimples, lumps and bumps by reducing bacterial growth and chance of infection. Simply apply a penis vitamin cream directly on the skin after a shower to achieve maximum effect and benefits.

Lymphedema Treatments – Living With Lymphedema

What is Lymphedema?

First I would need to explain what lymph is just in case you do not know. Lymph is a liquid that nourishes the tissue in blind-end vessels. Lymph travels from your capillaries into the main circulation through the veins in your neck.

Lymphedema is a condition where the soft tissues in the limbs swell; the swelling is caused by excessive build up of the lymph fluid.

Is there more then one type of lymphedema?

There are the primary and the secondary conditions. Primary lymphedema is a not so common condition. The patient is born with this type of lymphedema, which may not be actually identifiable until the effected is in their late teens or even the adulthood.

Secondary lymphedema is caused by injury or damage to the lymphatic system. Sometimes trauma or parasites along with surgery and radiation can also cause this. This may lead to chronic lymphedema if the lymphatic system cannot repair itself.

Is it serious? How can I tell?

Mild conditions can be fixed usually easily as the mild symptoms affect only one part of the body, with little to almost no swelling. The patient may feel some pain and a feeling of extra weight on the limb or an ache or sore feeling.

Moderate condition usually will last over a period of months or years; a decent amount of enlargement can be noticed in the arm: between a half an inch to two inches. Swelling feels quite firm and elevating of the arm does not reduce swelling.

If not treated, severe conditions may turn into elephantitis; symptoms will show over two inches of enlargement, severe swelling, and ulcers. Also and bacterial and fungal infections can occur.

One of the reasons for lymphedema is radiation therapy in cancer patients. Radiation can trigger the lymph nodes to develop. In the breast cancer patients the lymph nodes may start to grow under the armpit.

How can breast cancer patients help reduce their chances of getting lymphedema?

Naturally regular doctor consultations are must. If an infection begins, getting medication prescription is on the top list of the doctor visits. Putting on weight after cancer treatment should be avoided as is prevention of injuries. Also airplane flights and anything that causes the blood to rush to one area too quickly is not recommended.

What are the common lymphedema treatments?

There are multiple ways to treat the condition. Different types of lymphedema will require specific treatments and not all conditions will call for the same treatments. They also vary from person to person.

Most common lymphedema treatments are special compression techniques. They call for a bandaging the limb in a specific way so the lymph in the lymphatic system is forced to flow. Another method involves wrapping in so called a static compression device, which is similar to bandaging. Lymphedema patients will also recognize a lymphedema compression pumps. Those pumps are used in conjunction with the special massage known as manual lymphatic drainage, short MLD.

The manual lymphatic drainage needs to be done by another person; therefore, it is mostly done by professional lymphedema therapist. Although, a family member or friend can be trained in the special massage in order to help the patient to do MLD at home.

The lymphedema patients must take a really good care of the skin and keep it unbroken as they can easily get different kinds of infections. Keeping the weight in check is not the only thing they need think about either. Special exercises for lymphedema patients are recommended because the exercise helps the lymph flow as unlike blood, lymph is not “pumped” by heart and relies on the body movement only

Although the lymphedema can be a very daunting condition, with a proper care and treatment the symptoms can be greatly reduced and help the patient to live a fairly normal life.

Man Developing Breasts Due to Excessive Weight

With the number of weight loss products and diet pills being introduced in the market these days, choosing the one that really works can be really difficult. And at times, there are risks that go with consuming any of these products. So, before you try any of these weight loss pills that claim to be the fast and effective ways to help you achieve your weight loss goal, better look into your diet first because the answer might just be on the foods you eat.

Health and fitness in men should primarily revolve around weight control and maintenance. When there is excessive weight, many physical and aesthetic problems occur. These include formation or appearance of fat bulks in the chest area, more commonly called as ‘man breasts.’ For any man to lose man breasts easily, knowledge is needed. It would be better if probable causes are identified. Factors that make man breasts bigger should also be curtailed.

For men with abnormally big chests, there is hope. Surgery is not always the solution. There are many natural means to get rid of the embarrassment. breasts are identified more to women. That is why men who develop them, or similar to them, are embarrassed. Man breasts can be eliminated these days. Factors that make men’s breasts bigger should also be curtailed. Understanding is needed before any man aims to lose man breasts. With that, better curtailment of man breasts can be possible.

More information before you lose man breasts

In medical definition, man breasts development is called gynecomastia. The word comes from Greeks ‘gynaik’ and ‘mestos’. Gynaik means woman, while mestos, breast. To date, the exact reason why man breasts appear is still not clear. But there are several identified factors. Through time, those factors have been proven to lead to man breasts.

It has been determined that man breasts are made of stored fats. The components are the same as those in big bellies. Thus, you know how man breasts can be prevented. There are several other knowledge and information about man breasts. It would help a lot if you would know them. Such data are helpful in your drive to lose man breasts.

Other information needed before you lose man breasts

Understanding can be a key to lose man breasts. You should not take inappropriate actions and medications. The following information could be of great help to you.

* Hormonal imbalance in teenage boys could lead to man breasts. Puberty is a stage of confusion in the body. Man breasts from puberty usually disappears within about two years.

* Man breasts can be a symptom of severe ailments. Among those conditions are liver and kidney diseases. Man breasts can also herald obesity, diabetes, testicular tumors and hyperthyroidism.

* Gynecomastia can also be a result of medications. Treatments for some medical conditions can lead to man breasts. Prostate cancer medications are classic example of those.

If there are excess fat accumulations, gynecomastia can set in. Thus, men should take care of their bodies. Avoiding gaining too much weight can be helpful. If you want to lose man breasts, understand how gynecomastia can occur. Excellent health and fitness along with a good lifestyle is imminent if you want to lose man breasts and live a better life.

There are Only Two Diseases

The body digests, transforms food, nutrients into blood, structure and function. There are only two kinds of food, nutrients: building (hot, yang) and cleansing (cold, yin). The correct amount of building and cleansing produces the correct amount of blood, structure and function where the body mind can thrive. Any amounts, grater or less, in the extreme, tend to cause disease via too much or too little blood, structure and function.

Protein and fat (red meat, chicken, turkey, fish, eggs, cheese, and to a lesser extent beans, nuts, seeds, etc.) build, fuel, thicken, heat, hold, etc.

Too much protein and fat, especially red meat, pork, turkey, chicken, etc. tends to overbuild, thicken and heat the blood (high cholesterol, tumors, cancer), liver (congestion, cirrhosis), arteries (atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, high blood pressure), skin (warts, psoriasis), head (restlessness, insomnia), kidneys (stones), stomach (ulcer), body odor (putrid, offensive), large intestines (dry stools, constipation), etc.

Too little protein and fat tends to thin, weaken, slow digestion (abdominal bloating), blood (thin, anemic), face, skin, nails, hair (pale, thin, cracked), bones (osteoporosis), immune system (weak immunity, catches colds, easily, autoimmune illnesses), ovaries, uterus (infertility, miscarriage, short-term pregnancy), testes (impotence, premature ejaculation), etc.

Water, minerals, sugar, vitamins, enzymes (fruit, vegetables, grains) reduce, cleanse, cool, moisten and sink.

Too much water sugar, minerals reduce, cleanse, cool and moisten digestion (abdominal bloating, gas), stools (loose, diarrhea), body odor (sour, sweet, musty), respiration (mucous, phlegm, coughing, snoring, hacking, sleep apnea), reproduction (vaginal discharges, leukorrhea, yeast infections), breasts (cysts, lumps (movable), thighs, legs (edema, cellulite), body odor, (sour, sweet), etc.

Too little causes dryness (constipation, coughing).

Too little building and too much cleansing tends to cause cold, under built, damp diseases. Too much building and too little cleansing tends to cause overbuilt diseases. Balance is the key.

Eat more building and less cleansing food, herbs, etc. if your condition is cold, under built. Eat more cleansing and less building food, herbs, etc. if your condition is hot, overbuilt.

There are only two symptoms, diseases despite the variety. While most people, including doctors see an endless list of symptoms, diseases (high cholesterol, tumors, cancer, liver congestion, cirrhosis, atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, high blood pressure, warts, psoriasis, restlessness, insomnia, kidney stones, stomach ulcer, body odor (putrid, offensive), dry stools, constipation, abdominal bloating, thin blood, anemia, pallor, thin, cracked skin, nails, and hair, osteoporosis, weak immunity, catches colds, easily, autoimmune illnesses, infertility, miscarriage, short-term pregnancy, impotence, premature ejaculation, gas, loose stools, diarrhea, body odor, mucous, phlegm, coughing, snoring, hacking, sleep apnea, vaginal discharges, leukorrhea, yeast infections, cysts, lumps (movable), edema, cellulite, constipation, coughing, etc.), I see only only: overbuilt and under built.

1. Overbuilt diseases, symptoms: High cholesterol, tumors, cancer, liver congestion, cirrhosis, atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, high blood pressure, warts, psoriasis, restlessness, insomnia, kidney stones, stomach ulcer, body odor (putrid, offensive), dry stools, constipation

2. Under built symptoms, diseases: abdominal bloating, thin blood, anemia, pallor, thin, cracked skin, nails, and hair, osteoporosis, weak immunity, catches colds, easily, autoimmune illnesses, infertility, miscarriage, short-term pregnancy, impotence, premature ejaculation, gas, loose stools, diarrhea, body odor, mucous, phlegm, coughing, snoring, hacking, sleep apnea, vaginal discharges, leukorrhea, yeast infections, cysts, lumps (movable), edema, cellulite, constipation, coughing, etc. .

I also only see two causes, cures, treatment plans. Learn biology, diet and nutrition unless you want someone else (doctors, insurance companies) taking care of your health.

Classifying The Types Of Alternative Medicine

Alternative medicine can be defined as any form of therapy, practice or treatment which is outside the mainstream or beyond the realm of the conventional.

More generally it can be defined as any approach or medicine which differs from conventional Western forms. Alternative medicine is often talked about in conjunction with Complementary Therapy and the umbrella term Complementary & Alternative Medicine or CAM is used.

As a general guide some of the more mainstream CAMs are acupuncture, acupuncture, aromatherapy, herbal medicine, homoeopathy, hypnotherapy, massage therapy, naturopathy, reiki, reflexology & Yoga.

Alternative medicine in the UK is growing year on year and in 2006 it generated expenditure of 1.6 billion pounds. Large numbers of people choose to seek out alternative forms of medicine subsequent to a diagnosis from their GP or other traditional route. However in the main, research shows that people tend to use CAMs in parallel with conventional medicine. There is often resistance from GPs to recommend or refer a patient to an alternative therapy where they consider empirical evidence to be limited or non-conclusive and the research methods are not always standardised as with traditional medicine. There are also often funding issues relating to onward referrals within the NHS.

However, the CAM sector is responding to this criticism by adopting the standard research methods & evidence provision in line with the medical establishments traditional methods. This is largely assisting with the rapid growth of this multi-layered industry, alongside the continually growing wealth of positive empirical evidence.

Generally speaking CAM’s can be organised into five key areas, although it should be noted that there are number of areas where these overlap. These areas are –

Whole Medical Systems (WMS)

WHMS have been developed in the West – often with it roots in other medicine systems. Examples of this type of system are Naturopathy – helping or stimulating the body’s own in-built healing system by improving diet & lifestyle in conjunction with other CAMs such as acupuncture and massage. A good non Western parallel to this system is Chinese Medicine as is Ayurveda which hails from India and takes the holistic approach of treating the mind body & spirit via massage, yoga, herbs & meditation.

Another WMS which developed in recent years in the West is Homeopathy the practice of stimulating the healing system of the body by delivering minute amounts of certain elements or substances which in much higher doses would be detrimental or dangerous to a patient’s health.

Mind-Body Medicine (MBM)

MBM can call upon a number of techniques which are aimed at improving the symptoms & functions of the body e.g. meditation, Yoga etc. A number of therapies which historically where thought to be CAMs are now firmly placed in the mainstream such as Cognitive Behaviour Therapy and NLP (Neuro Linguistic Programming).

Biologically Based Practices (BBP)

BBP are derived from elements and materials which are found naturally such as vitamins for supplements, healthy foods for well being & detoxification and herbs helping with everything from pain relief to stress & weight loss. Biologically based practices in CAM use substances found in nature, such as herbs, foods, and vitamins. Some examples include dietary supplements, herbal products, and the use of other so-called natural but as yet scientifically unproven therapies (for example, using shark cartilage to treat cancer).

Manipulative and Body-Based Practices (MBBP)

MBBP work by manipulation, pressure and rubbing of soft tissues and muscles aimed at promoting repair, better health & flexibility. These type of therapy work by removing scar tissue, promoting oxygen flow and helping the removal of toxins and acids.

A number are further examples of therapies which are becoming less and less alternative and more mainstream. These include Chiropractic, Osteopathy, Massage & other body work such as Shiatsu and Sports Massage.

Energy Medicine Therapies (EMT)

EMT are believed to help the patient by tapping into the energy fields which cloak the human body and restoring balance, improving energy flow and clearing blockages. Examples of these type of therapies are Reiki, Chinese Medicine and Energy Healing.

So, why the growth in CAMs? Well, in recent years patients have gradually taken more accountability & responsibility for their health and are not as happy as maybe they once were to be told what to do or how to live. As a result they are becoming more autonomous and seeking out their own alternatives and solutions.

It is important to note they don’t side step mainstream traditional medicine but seek help from CAMs to complement their treatment. Part of the reason for this empowerment is the growth of the internet and the ease of access to swathes of information, research, forums and feedback available at a click on the World Wide Web. Recent research has shown that over 60% of internet users use the web to provide answers on health related issues.

In addition to the ground swell of the general public embracing CAMs, areas of traditional medicine are adopting and recommending alternative therapies. The NHS now has as 5 hospitals offering CAMs for patients and more and more health professionals such as doctors, nurses and mid wives are training in alternative therapies to offer within their mainstream practice.