The backbone consists of five different regions named as Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacral and the Coccyx. These regions differ from each other due to the position and number of vertebrae present in each of them. The number of the vertebrae with respect to the regions are; Cervical (7), Thoracic (12), Lumbar (5), Sacrum (4-5) and Coccyx (3-4).

Doctors and physicians use general code names for the vertebrae. These names are made with the first letter of the respective region along with the number of vertebrae such as the Cervical Vertebrae are from C1-C7. Similarly, Thoracic Vertebrae is from T1-T12 and Lumbar Vertebrae from L1-L5. While the Sacral and the Coccygeal Vertebrae don’t have code names.

Next region that comes is the Thoracic Region and the vertebrae present here are the “Thoracic Vertebrae”. Twelve bones after the cervical vertebrae are situated in this region. These bones make up the Rib Cage and are larger in size rather than the cervical vertebrae. The size of the thoracic vertebrae increases from top to bottom.

There are many diseases that can be caused in the vertebral column. Some of them are Osteoporosis, Osteosarcoma, Spondylolisthesis, and Osteoarthritis. Osteoporosis is a disease in which the bones become fragile due to decrease in the density of bone. This disease actually leads to a porous bone which is soft and compressible. Osteosarcoma is also known as the cancer of bones. This happens in the tissue of the bone due to a cancerous tumor that destroys the normal tissue. It arises from the osteoid tissue of the bone.

Spondylolisthesis is defined as the frontward or the rearward movement of the vertebrae in the column. This occurs due to the slippage of the pars articularis discs present between the vertebrae. The backbone loses its original shape and the patient suffers from chronic pains. Osteoarthritis is a disease caused due to the defect in the joints between the bones. Synovium is a membrane in the joints which secretes a fluid to lubricate the joints otherwise friction might be caused which can lead to Osteoarthritis. If the secretion is reduced, the person is more likely to have the disease.